BASIC INSTRUMENTATION MEASURING DEVICES AND BASIC PID CONTROL Part 2
DP Transmitter Application
A DP transmitter is used to measure the gas pressure (in gauge scale) inside a vessel. In this case, the low-pressure side of the transmitter is vented to atmosphere and the high-pressure side is connected to the vessel through an isolating valve. The isolating valve facilitates the removal of the transmitter. The output of the DP transmitter is proportional to the gauge pressure of the gas, i.e., 4 mA when pressure is 20 kPa and 20 mA when pressure is 30 kPa.
2.1.6 Strain Gauges
The strain gauge is a device that can be affixed to the surface of an object to detect the force applied to the object. One form of the strain gauge is a metal wire of very small diameter that is attached to the surface of a device being monitored. For a metal, the electrical resistance will increase as the length of the metal increases or as the cross sectional diameter decreases. When force is applied as indicated in Figure 8, the overall length of the wire tends to increase while the cross-sectional area decreases. The amount of increase in resistance is proportional to the force that produced the change in length and area. The output of the strain gauge is a change in resistance that can be measured by the input circuit of an amplifier. Strain gauges can be bonded to the surface of a pressure capsule or to a force bar positioned by the measuring element. Shown in Figure 9 (next page) is a strain gauge that is bonded to a force beam inside the DP capsule. The change in the process pressure will cause a resistive change in the strain gauges, which is then used to produce a 4-20 mA signal.
2.1.7 Capacitance Capsule
Similar to the strain gauge, a capacitance cell measures changes in electrical characteristic. As the name implies the capacitance cell measures changes in capacitance. The capacitor is a device that stores electrical charge. It consists of metal plates separated by an electrical insulator. The metal plates are connected to an external electrical circuit through which electrical charge can be transferred from one metal plate to the other. The capacitance of a capacitor is a measure of its ability to store charge. The capacitance of the capacitance of a capacitor is directly proportional to the area of the metal plates and inversely proportional to the distance between them. It also depends on a characteristic of the insulating material between them. This characteristic, called permittivity is a measure of how well the insulating material increases the ability of the capacitor to store charge.
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BASIC INSTRUMENTATION MEASURING DEVICES AND BASIC PID CONTROL Part 1
Instrumentation is the art of measuring the value of some plant parameter, pressure, flow, level or temperature to name a few and supplying a signal that is proportional to the measured parameter. The output signals are standard signal and can then be processed by other equipment to provide indication, alarms or automatic control. There are a number of standard signals; however, those most common in a CANDU plant are the 4-20 mA electronic signal and the 20-100 kPa pneumatic signal. This section of the course is going to deal with the instrumentation equipment normal used to measure and provide signals. We will look at the measurement of five parameters: pressure, flow, level, temperature, and neutron flux.
2.1 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
This module will examine the theory and operation of pressure detectors (bourdon tubes, diaphragms, bellows, forced balance and variable capacitance). It also covers the variables of an operating environment (pressure, temperature) and the possible modes of failure.
2.1.1 General Theory
Pressure is probably one of the most commonly measured variables in the power plant. It includes the measurement of steam pressure; feed water pressure, condenser pressure, lubricating oil pressure and many more. Pressure is actually the measurement of force acting on area of surface. We could represent this as: The units of measurement are either in pounds per square inch (PSI) in British units or Pascals (Pa) in metric. As one PSI is approximately 7000 Pa, we often use kPa and MPa as units of pressure.
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Level is one of the many variables encountered in industries such as temperature (temperature), pressure (pressure) and flow (flow). Therefore, the level of measurement is one of the important things in relation to the overall sustainability of the process. Failure level measurements may result in failure of a process or may even cause harmful factor for safety. Some examples of instruments relating to the measurement of the level shown in Figure 1.
In general, the level of measurement is always based on the determination of boundary (interface) of two different fluid. For example between a fluid liquid with another liquid fluid, the fluid is a liquid with gas / vapor or gas between the gas fluid. By knowing where the limit is, then the level of fluid in question will be known.
Level measurement method.
There are several ways that can be used to measure the level of which is:
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